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What is ultrasound?
Ultrasound uses sound waves to create images of internal body structures. Real time 3-D image technology also called 4D used by IDC has revolutionized these studies to next level.
Ultrasound waves were used initially to detect icebergs in water after Titanic tragedy. In medical sciences ultrasound waves were first used during late 1940’s. Today, ultrasound is a common diagnostic medical imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce dynamic images, called sonograms. Ultrasound (or sonography) is a non-invasive, painless, radiation free method of getting images of blood flow inside the body, as well as just about every type of tissue or organ.
Islamabad Diagnostic Center recently introduced latest Logic Voluson Signature Series S6 & S7 by GE USA.  Equipped with latest Advanced LOGIQ architecture these deliver very sharp high resolution images. 3D real time studies yield immense information of any underline pathology. Extremely powerful and versatile, GE system offers a high level of performance in all clinical applications. It has absolutely no known side effects or risks and it is safe enough to use on pregnant women. Ultrasound has become one of the most widely used diagnostic tools in modern medicine.
There are many kinds of ultrasounds/ Doppler studies.

Ultrasounds That Do Not Require Preparation

The following ultrasounds require no preparation on the part of the patient:

  • US axilla – used to examine the lymph nodes and often used in conjunction with a breast ultrasound to find possible masses.
  • US arterial lower or upper extremities – used to diagnose reduced or blocked arterial blood flow in the arms and legs.
  • US breast – usually used after a mammogram to view specific areas of concern. Primarily, it is used to determine the type of lesion occurring in the breast and whether biopsies are necessary.
  • US carotid – used to visualize blood flow in the carotid artery to show possible narrowing or blockage.
  • US extremity non-vascular – is an ultrasound of the arm or leg tissue (as opposed to the vasculature as in the arterial or venous ultrasounds) used to visualize lesions or masses.
  • US renal – examines the kidneys for obstruction including stones, tumors, or cysts.
  • US scrotum – checks for a range of problems including vascular problems in the testicles, undescended testicles, pain, inflammation and mass.
  • US soft tissues – used to evaluate inflammation, infection, masses, necrotizing fasciitis and other lesions in the soft tissues of the body such as muscle.
  • US thyroid – used to evaluate goiters or other problems with the Thyroid gland.
  • US transvaginal – commonly done for pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding or abnormal findings during a gynecological manual exam. During this test the probe is placed inside the vagina and moved around to visualize the internal reproductive organs. It may be done during vaginal bleeding, provided the patient is comfortable with that.
  • US venous lower or upper extremities – is used to search for blood clots such as a DVT (deep vein thrombosis).

Ultrasounds That Require Preparation

It is very important that you follow the preparation instructions. If you come to your appointment without properly preparing the technologist will not be able to perform the test and your appointment will have to be rescheduled.

  • US abdomen and US RUQ (right upper quadrant of the abdomen) – used to look at any of the organs in the abdominal cavity to look for masses, enlargements or to find the cause of abdominal pain. Your referring physician might be more specific about what organ to examine so your prescription could say: US gallbladder, US liver, US pancreas or US spleen.
  • US abdominal aorta – most commonly used to look for abdominal aortic aneurism (AAA) a ballooning of the aortic wall due to increased pressure and thinning of a particular part of the wall. This ultrasound measures the size of the aneurism and assesses the danger of rupture.
  • US bladder – usually used to see the amount of urine in the full bladder versus the amount after urination, search for stones or measure bladder wall thickness.
  • US fetal/US OB – done at different stages of fetal development to see the fetus size and anatomy and to make sure the pregnancy is progressing well. Often done in conjunction with a transvaginal ultrasound.
  • US pelvic – done to find the cause of pain, inflammation, abnormal bleeding and to help diagnose any problems with the reproductive system. Often done in conjunction with a transvaginal ultrasound.
  • US prostate – to help diagnose cancer, inflammation, enlargement of the prostate gland and infertility.
  • US renal artery – done to evaluate blood flow to the kidneys via the renal artery and look for narrowing or obstruction.

 Ultrasound Uses:

  • To monitor the growth of baby in the womb & pick abnormalities timely.
  • To diagnose problems of the liver, gall bladder, pancreas, thyroid gland, lymph nodes, ovaries, testes, kidneys, bladder and breast.
  • To assist certain procedures like ultrasound guided biopsies/ fluid aspiration etc.

Ultrasound during pregnancy:
Dating Scan advised between 8-14 weeks of pregnancy. Expected date of delivery (EDD) is calculated during this study that’s why known as dating scan.
Anomaly Scan advised during 18-21 week of pregnancy. Fetal abnormalities (anomalies) are picked during this study.
4D fetal ultrasounds are similar to 3D scans, with the difference associated with time: 4D allows a 3-dimensional picture in real time, rather than delayed, due to the lag associated with the computer constructed image, as in classic 3-dimensional ultrasound. 4D Scan is advised usually around 6 month of pregnancy. One can see the baby face & ultrasound pictures. So you may see your baby before he sees the world.
Ultrasound role in female health:
Ultrasound is most safe, simple and primary test to rule out any abnormality. These include

  • PCOS Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
  • Fibroid Uterus • Endometriosis

Ovarian Cyst • Cancers of ovary, uterus etc


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